What you need to know
The Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand 2016 (HAPINZ 3.0) study, released in July 2022, shows that exposure to human-made air pollution has serious impacts on the health of New Zealanders.
Transport is responsible for the majority of the harms caused by human-made air pollution.
Transport emissions are responsible for all the health impacts caused by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) which come from exhaust gas. Transport emissions are also responsible for 17 percent of the health impacts of fine particles in the air we breathe. Each year, this results in:
- the premature deaths of more than 2,200 adult New Zealanders
- more than 9,200 hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiac illnesses,
- over 13,200 cases of childhood asthma
The social cost of the health burden of transport emissions is $10.5 billion.
Diesel vehicles make up 23% of our vehicle fleet, but produce most of the pollutants of concern to human health: nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. These have multiple negative health effects, especially for children. Particulates are known to be carcinogenic, and nitrogen oxides cause respiratory and cardiovascular damage, and can contribute to smog.
Since the early 2000s the Government has progressively introduced measures to reduce the health and environmental impacts of vehicle emissions. This has contributed towards decreasing emissions of most pollutants from transport sources — note that policies to reduce harmful emissions do not affect greenhouse gas emissions.
Significant and genuine improvements have been made in fuel quality and vehicle emissions through new standards. However, the growth in the vehicle fleet (especially diesels) and an increase in the number of people exposed to air pollution means the health effects and social costs have increased since the last HAPINZ report.
The findings reinforce the importance of action underway to reduce reliance on private vehicles, move to zero or low-emissions vehicles and decarbonise our freight sector and public transport.
They also highlight a significant gap in our vehicle exhaust emissions standards that need to be brought back in line with global norms. This means requiring imported vehicles to meet increasingly stricter emissions standards and aligning ourselves with the Euro 6/VI standards. Te Manatū Waka will work with the industry on phasing these requirements in.
A report named Estimating the impacts of introducing Euro 6/VI vehicle emission standards for New Zealand has also been produced by the authors of HAPINZ 3.0 and shows the costs and benefits of introducing Euro 6 vehicles at different years.
The Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Exhaust Emissions 2007 is the Government’s primary tool for reducing the release of harmful emissions from vehicles in New Zealand.
The work to date
Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand (HAPINZ) 3.0 report released
The HAPINZ 3.0 report was released in July 2022. The report highlights the harmful impacts of air pollution in New Zealand, with motor vehicles and domestic fires the biggest factors.
The base year for the HAPINZ 3.0 assessment was 2016, with data typically averaged over 2015-2017. 2016 was selected because it was the most recent year for which we had a complete set of suitable air quality, population and health data.
Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand (HAPINZ) report in progress
The original HAPINZ study was published in 2007 and updated in 2012. The 2012 report found that harmful emissions from vehicles cause 256 premature deaths every year in New Zealand, with social costs of NZD$934 million. The report also identified that diesel vehicle emissions were the largest contributor to poor air quality in Auckland City.
Environment Aotearoa report published and updated
First published in 2015 by the Ministry for the Environment and Stats NZ, the updated Environment Aotearoa report noted that New Zealand’s air quality is good in most places and at most times of the year. However, vehicle emissions contributed to poor air quality in places, particularly for nitrogen dioxide pollution, which can cause serious health problems.
Preliminary investigation into addressing tampering with emissions controls
We undertook a preliminary investigation into the potential scale of vehicle owners tampering with emissions control equipment and how to address this. We began this work after hearing concerns from the vehicle-related industries and other government organisations.
Study to identify vehicle emissions options published
We commissioned Covec to prepare a study that identified options, other than implementing vehicle emissions standards when vehicles enter the fleet, to address harmful emissions from vehicles already on the road in New Zealand, particularly in Auckland.
Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Rule reviewed and updated
In 2012 the Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Exhaust Emissions 2007 was amended to make changes to the requirements relating to exhaust emissions standards for new and imported used vehicles operating on New Zealand roads. Several minor technical amendments were also made.
Vehicle emissions assessment undertaken
In 2007, Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency began a national monitoring programme to assess vehicle emissions across the state highway network. This assessment used data gathered from selected sites using passive samplers to measure nitrogen dioxide as a proxy for vehicle-related air pollution.
Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Rule consulted on and amended
As part of a package of measures being developed to improve air quality, Cabinet agreed to raise the emission standards in order to reduce emissions of vehicles being imported into New Zealand.
Visible smoke check Rule amendment
In late 2004 and early 2005, we carried out public consultation on proposals for in-service emissions testing as part of Warrant and Certificate of Fitness requirements for all vehicles on New Zealand roads.
Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Rule came into effect
The Land Transport Rule: Vehicle Exhaust Emissions 2003 was the first Rule to set emissions standards for vehicles entering New Zealand.